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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

3D Effect Lenticular
Aim Point Morph Effect
Alignment Bar/Image Parallax
Bitmap Image Photoshop
CMYK and RGB Pitch
Combination Effect POP
DPI PSD
Fine Gauge and Heavy Gauge Raster Image
Flip Effect Resolution
Frame Side to Side (Left to Right or Right to Left)
FTP Top to Bottom
Full Motion Effect Vector image
Ghosting Viewing Angle
Interleaving Zoom Effect
Lamination  


3D Effect


A sequence of images representing different viewpoints on a subject are encoded and revealed to the viewer at carefully calculated angles by a Lenticular display. Each eye perceives a different viewpoint, this creates an illusion of depth with the image floating above and below the flat surface of the display.

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Aim Point


The Aim Point is the depth plane lying at the surface of the display. Important elements such as type or logos are usually composed on this plane.

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Alignment Bar/Image


The alignment bar is a specially encoded area around the image that helps the press operator register the printing precisely on the lens.

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Bitmap Image


A bitmap is a graphic image described in computer file form as as a mosaic of dots or pixels (picture elements). Each pixel is described by a number which specifies the intensity of colour inks or illuminants used by the printer or monitor to represent the original image. Web graphics are often bitmap images. A bitmap graphic is also known as a raster graphic.

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CMYK and RGB


Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and black (Key) are the base colours used in some printing processes. They are the primary colors of the Subtractive Colour Model.

RGB (Red, Green, and Blue) are the primary colours of the Additive Colour Model. When added together by the illuminants in colour monitors or photographic output devices they can display vitually all the visible colours of nature.

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Combination Effect


Combination Effect is the term used to describe the use of two or more effects such as a zoom with full motion, or a 3D image with a flip background.

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DPI


Dots Per Inch (DPI) is the number of distinguishable dots per inch printable on a halftone screen, or the number of drops of ink deposited by an Inkjet printer. Photographic output devices are described as "continuos tone" as they have no visible dot on the finished print. On these devices the quoted DPI refers to the number of pixels per inch of final print that are be used by the printer to create the image.

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Fine Gauge and Heavy Gauge


"Fine gauge" is one of the two basic groups of lenticular screens types. Fine gauge lenticular screens are thin enough to go through special offset printing presses. This allows large numbers of pieces to be printed economically. Fine gauge is most often used for items such as Lenticular Postcards, Lenticular Coasters and Lenticular CD or DVD Covers.

"Heavy Gauge" is a thicker lenticular screen, generally with wider individual lenticules. It cannot be printed using a high volume printing press and therefore the print is created separately using high resolution photographic or digital printers and is then registered and laminated to the lenticular screen by hand. Heavy Gauge is most often used for Backlit Signs, Vending Machine Panels, Posters, Billboards, Exhibition pieces and Point of Sale Advertising.

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Flip Effect


The lenticular Flip Effect is the simplest of all lenticular effects. Up to three separate images are combined in one piece and can be viewed independently from different angles while moving the lenticular screen.

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Frame


A frame is a single image which forms part of a sequence. A two-image flip is called a 2 frame animation. 12 frames of video is described as a 12 frame animation.

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FTP


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a way of transferring files over the Internet from one computer to another. The Lenticular FTP Guide will explain how to FTP your artwork to us.

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Full Motion Effect


The lenticular Full Motion Effect uses multiple frames of an action sequence to show movement from the beginning to the end. It is like watching a short movie or video clip on a simple printed medium. Full Motion from video requires the highest quality source material available ie: Digital Beta, HD video, film, or a sequence of digital stills.

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Ghosting


If the Lenticular Screen does not clearly differentiate between all frames or images, a "ghost" of other frames may be visible. This can occur with very high contrast images, attempting to use too many images or exceeding the resolution capabilities of your output device and lenticular screen. Another common cause is poor registration of the print.

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Interleaving


Interleaving is the process of encoding image data from two or more graphics into a configuration compatible with Lenticular Screen, (sometimes confused with "interlacing" - a video technique for smoothing the transition between frames).

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Lamination


Lamination is the process of registering and adhering a suitably interlaced photographic or digital print to Lenticular Screen.

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Lenticular


Lenticular (meaning lens like) is the term used to describe printing which uses a special optical screen to create various effects. The screen consists of a thousands of fine elongated lenses or lenticules extruded or moulded into the surface of an optically clear plastic sheet.

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Lenticule


A lenticule is a single lens element in a lenticular lens array characterized by curvature along one axis only.

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Morph Effect


The lenticular Morph Effect is the metamorphosis or gradual change of one image into another through the use of sophisticated image algorithms. Although any two objects can be morphed, the effect works best when the two images are similar in shape and on a common background.

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Parallax


Parallax is the relative displacement of distant objects due to movement on behalf of the observer or the difference in position of the viewers eyes. The greater the parallax shift the greater the apparent depth in a Lenticular Image.

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Photoshop


Photoshop is an image editing program by Adobe used for editing images, retouching, and creating composite images or special effects. It can also be used for creating other forms of art. Adobe Illustrator or Macromedia Freehand are other image editing programs that use vector (shape and position) based algorithms instead of raster (pixel) based algorithms like Photoshop.

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Pitch


Pitch is the width of individual lenticules or lenses it is usually expressed in "lenses per inch of screen".

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POP


POP is an acronym for Point of Purchase. Lenticular shop counter displays are often used at the point of purchase.

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PSD


PSD is the name often given to Photoshop's native file format (the file extension is .psd). This format is often preferred in lenticular imaging as it stores images in layer form. It can also store selection data, effects, colour adjustments and other image data in a way which is not destructive of the original image. This allows further adjustment or editing of the image with a minimum of quality loss.

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Raster Image


A scanning pattern of parallel lines that form the display of an image projected on a cathode-ray tube of a television set or display screen.

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Registration


Registration is the name given to alignment and/or placement of the individual printing colours relative to each other and to the lenses of the Lenticular Screen.

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Resolution


Resolution refers to the number of pixels (picture elements) or printing dots used to describe or represent the original image or scene. Resolution is usually expressed as DPI meaning Dots Per Inch of image size.

When a digital file is created from an image the image is described in the file by a matrix or mosaic of separate picture elements (pixels). Each pixel is stored with a numeric code representing it's colour and brightness. If each pixel accurately represents a tiny part of the original image, the higher the resolution, the greater the clarity and definition (and the larger the file size). Increasing the size of a file on the computer (interpolation) does not increase the resolution of an image as it can not add any detail which was not present in the original file. On the contrary interpolation invariably destroys detail as the computer is forced to interpret the data to express the detail in a different number and pattern of pixels. Unnecessary interpolation should therefore be avoided. Final sizing of a file for printing is best done by our technicians using a specially designed RIP (Raster image Processor) which reinterprets the data appropriately for the final output device.

Monitor Resolution
Most computer monitors have 72 dots or pixels per inch so an image of 72 dpi will appear at the correct physical size on any monitor and will be referred to as "Monitor Resolution".

Low Resolution (Low Res) and High Resolution (High Res)
Low resolution derivatives of image files are often used for convenience during the layout or client approval stages of production. The files are smaller and have less data so are more easily viewed, stored and transmitted. They are replaced by the High Resolution files prior to final editing and printing of the job.

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Side to side (Left to Right or Right to Left)


For 3 D images the Lenticules of a screen must run vertically so that each eye is directed to a different image or perspective printed under the lens.

Image flips or animations intended to be viewed by passers by will also be printed Side to Side. Care must be taken in the design of non 3D effects for Side to Side viewing as the viewer will see a different Frame with each eye and this may be confusing.

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Top to Bottom


When effects other than 3D are to be hand held the Lenticules are arranged to run horizontally across the piece which is then tilted from Top to Bottom to observe the changing image.

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Vector Image


Vector images are produced using mathematically generated points, lines and shapes. Vector files can be resized and manipulated without losing resolution.

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Viewing Angle


The viewing angle is the degree of movement required to see all the images on a particular lens type. This determines how fast or slow an animation can be viewed.

Lenses designed for 3D generally have a smaller Viewing angle and are thicker than lenses designed for animation based effects.

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Zoom Effect


A sequence of images makes the subject appear to move closer or farther away from the viewer. This effect works best when the background is common throughout the sequence, and the image loops with no obvious start or finish.

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DDB Advertising

DDB Advertising were looking for a variety of lenticular 3D effect items to promote Wrigley's Xcite chewing gum.

Company
DDB Advertising
Lenticular Effect
3D Effect
Product:
Sticker, Coin Mat, Mousepad

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The City Gallery

The City Gallery in Wellington, NZ, asked us for a lenticular full motion video postcard for their Len Lye exhibition.

Company
City Gallery Wellington
Lenticular Effect
Full Motion Video Effect
Product:
Lenticular Postcard

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Minaxi May

Minaxi May came to us looking for a lenticular morph effect postcard featuring Michael Jackson.

Company
Minaxi May
Lenticular Effect
Morph Effect
Product:
Lenticular Postcard

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Arnell Group

Arnell Group were looking for a lenticular full motion video Point of Purchase (POP) display for Reebok.

Company
Arnell Group
Lenticular Effect
Full Motion Video Effect
Product:
Lenticular POP

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